Mayiladuthurai History

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Mayiladuthurai

Mayiladuthurai (formerly known as Mayavaram or Mayuram) is a historic town in Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu.
Mayiladuthurai was ruled by Medieval Cholas and subsequently ruled by various dynasties including the Vijayanagar Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British Empire. Mayiladuthurai was a part of the erstwhile Tanjore district until India's independence in 1947 and Thanjavur district until 1991 and subsequently a part of the newly formed Nagapattinam district. The town is known for agriculture, metal working and weaving. The region around Mayiladuthurai has considerable mineral deposits.

Mayiladuthurai is administered by a municipality established in 1865. As of 2008, the municipality covered an area of 11.27 km2 (4.35 sq mi) and had a population of 92,000. Mayiladuthurai comes under the Mayiladuthurai assembly constituency which elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years and it is a part of the Mayiladuthurai constituency which elects its Member of Parliament (MP) once in five years. Roadways are the major mode of transportation to the town and it also has rail connectivity. The nearest seaport, Karaikal port, is located 40 km (25 mi) from Mayiladuthurai, while the nearest airport, Tiruchirappalli International Airport, is located 130 km (81 mi) from the town

Etymology

Mayiladuthurai gets its name from the Mayura or Mayil (peacock) form in which the Hindu goddess Parvathi worshipped the Hindu god Shiva at this place. While previously known by its Sanskrit name Mayuram meaning “peacock town", the town has been recently de-Sanskritized to its Tamil translation Mayiladuthurai as a result of a petition by the Mayuram municipality to the Government of Tamil Nadu in the wake of the Dravidian Movement.The Mayuranathaswami Temple dedicated to the goddess Parvathi is one of the most important Hindu temples in the town. There is a statue depicting goddess Parvathi in a peahen form worshipping a linga, the symbol of the god Shiva to the west of the eastern wall of the temple.

History

Mayiladuthurai is of significant antiquity, its oldest extant temples dating to the time of the Medieval Cholas. The region, however, is known to have been inhabited since the 3rd millennium BC. Sherds of megalithic black and red ware have been found at Akkur, 14 km (8.7 mi) to the east of Mayiladuthurai. In 2006, artifacts with Indus Valley signs dated between 2000 and 1500 BC were found at the nearby village of Sembiyankandiyur.There have been references to Mayiladuthurai in the works of the 7th century Saivite saint Sambandar. The Thanjavur Nayak king Raghunatha Nayak constructed mandapams in Mayiladuthurai. During the 17th and 18th centuries AD, Mayiladuthurai was ruled by the Thanjavur Marathas who invited Brahmins from the Telugu, Kannada and Maratha countries to settle in the region and gave large extents of land to them. In 1799, Mayiladuthurai, was ceded to the British East India Company, along with the rest of the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom, by the Thanjavur Maratha ruler Serfoji II.Mayiladuthurai prospered under British rule emerging as an important town in Tanjore district. Carnatic musicians Madurai Mani Iyer and Gopalakrishna Bharathi and Samuel Vedanayagam Pillai, who wrote the first Tamil novel Prathapa Mudaliar Charithram were connected with Mayiladuthurai while Tamil writer Kalki Krishnamurthy, M.S.Udhaya Moorthy studied at the Municipal High School in Mayiladuthurai. When the Tanjore district was trifurcated in 1991, Mayiladuthurai was transferred to the newly formed Nagapattinam district. According to local folklore, Mayiladuthurai was associated with Hindu holy men called “Siddhars". To this day, a neighbourhood of Mayiladuthurai is called Siddharkaadu.

Administration and politics

The town of Mayiladuthurai is administered by a municipal council which was created in 1866 as per the Town Improvements Act 1865. The council initially had eleven members.This was increased to 18 in 1883 and currently stands at 36.

As of 2008, the municipality covered an area of 11.27 km2 (4.35 sq mi) and had a total of 36 members. The functions of the municipality is devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the supreme executive head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 36 members, one each from the 36 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson. There are a total of four revenue villages with Mayiladuthurai – Thiruvilandur, Dharmapuram, Nanchildu and Kornad.The municipality has allocated a budget of ₹2,183,350,000 for the year 2010–11.

Mayiladuthurai is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by the Mayiladuthurai state assembly constituency seat. N. Kittappa of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam served as member for the Mayiladuthurai legislative constituency for four consecutive terms from 1967 to 1984.The Indian National Congress has won the seat four times (1957, 1962,1991 and 2006), the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, five times (1967, 1971, 1977, 1980, 1989); the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) and the Bharatiya Janata Party, once each. Mayuram assembly constituency is part of Mayiladuthurai Lok Sabha constituency.

In the national parliament, Mayiladuthurai is a part of the Mayiladuthurai (Lok Sabha constituency), which has six assembly constituencies – Mayiladuthurai, sirkali (SC), Poompuhar, Thiruvidaimarudur (SC), Kumbakonam and Papanasam. The constituency was constituted during the third Lok Sabha (lower house) as Mayuram until the 1980 elections, when it was renamed Mayiladuthurai. During the first elections in 1957, Mayiladuthurai was part of Chidambaram constituency and was held by the Indian National Congress party. The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is R.K. Bharathi Mohan of the AIADMK party. From 1962, the Mayiladuthurai parliament seat was held by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) twice between 1967 and 1971, and from 1971 to 1977, Tamil Maanila Congress for two terms between 1998 and 1999,and 1996 to 1998,[48] Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam twice during 2009 and 2014, Indian National Congress for eight terms during 1962–67, 1977–80, 1980–84, 1984–89, 1989–91, 1991–96, 1999–2004, and 2004–09.

Popular Communist leader K. Ananda Nambiar represented Mayiladuthurai in the Lok Sabha from 1951 to 1957. Mani Shankar Aiyar who served as a minister in India’s cabinet was elected to the Parliament from the Mayiladuthurai Lok Sabha constituency in the 1991,[54] 1999and 2004 elections. The Mayiladuthurai Lok Sabha constituency was enlarged in 1977 and the Assembly segments of the abolished Kumbakonam Lok Sabha constituency were included in it as per the deliberations of the delimitation committee.

Demographics

According to 2011 census, Mayiladuthurai had a population of 85,632 with a sex-ratio of 1,045 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 7,720 were under the age of six, constituting 3,883 males and 3,837 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 5.87% and .57% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the town was 83.55%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.The town had a total of 21929 households. There were a total of 29,855 workers, comprising 321 cultivators, 707 main agricultural labourers, 734 in house hold industries, 23,004 other workers, 5,089 marginal workers, 74 marginal cultivators, 485 marginal agricultural labourers, 246 marginal workers in household industries and 4,284 other marginal workers. As of 2001, there are 26 slums in Mayiladuthurai with a total population of 32,381.

The density of population is higher in the core areas along the banks of river Cauvery compared to the peripheral areas.[68] As of 1996, a total 498.84 ha (4.9884 km2) (44.27%) of the land was used for residential, 68.87 ha (0.6887 km2) (6.11%) for commercial, 6.33 ha (0.0633 km2) (0.56%) for industrial, 22.35 ha (0.2235 km2) (1.98%) for educational, 24.27 ha (0.2427 km2) (2.16%) for public & semi public purposes and 506.35 ha (5.0635 km2) (44.92%) of agricultural area. As of 2008, there were a total of 26 notified slums, with 16,434 comprising 13% of the total population residing in those. The municipal data, however, pointed out an increase in population in slum areas.

Hinduism is the major religion followed in Mayiladuthurai and Tamil is the major language spoken.A vast majority of the populace is engaged in agriculture. About 15 percent of the total working population is engaged in trade while 25 percent is engaged in other commercial activities. As per the religious census of 2011, Mayiladuthurai had 88.69% Hindus, 6.38% Muslims, 4.19% Christians, 0.04% Sikhs, 0.03% Buddhists, 0.32% Jains and 0.35% following other religions.

Economy

The economy of Mayiladuthurai is primarily agro-based. The main products of Mayiladuthurai are rice, coconuts and plaintains. Confectioneries, printing presses, vehicle manufacturing units and rice mills are the major industries in Mayiladuthurai. Industrial workers form barely 27.14 percent of the town’s population.Mayiladuthurai is known for a unique variety of cloth known as the “Kornad cloths" which derives its name from the suburb of Kornad where they are manufactured. These cloths are made up of a mixture of cotton and silk and dyed in bright colours.

The municipality runs a vegetable market and fish market in the town. There are many departmental stores in Mayiladuthurai. The only shopping complex is the Kittappa commercial complex which is maintained by the municipality.The Indian Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, State Bank of India, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, City Union Bank, Vijaya Bank, Lakshmi Vilas Bank, Karur Vysya Bank, HDFC Bank, Tamilnad Mercantile Bank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, Axis Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Kumbakonam Central Cooperative Bank and the Kumbakonam Mutual Benefit Fund have their branches in Mayiladuthurai.

Culture

The Mayuranathaswami was built during the time of the Medieval Cholas and is 719 ft (219 m) long and 520 ft (160 m) wide. The gopuram, the temple gateway tower, at the eastern entrance is 164 ft (50 m) high. Within the Mayuranathaswami temple, there is a carving of a devotee of Shiva trying to cut off his own head as an offering to the God. The oldest inscriptions in the shrine date back to the reign of Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 CE). The temple is maintained and administered by the Thiruvaduthurai Adheenam, a South Indian monastic institution.

The Vallalar Koil or Medha Dakshinamurthy (Guru Bhagawan) Temple on the northern bank of the River houses an idol of the God Dakshinamoorthi mounted on a Nandhi. There is another idol of Nandhi at the Thula bathing ghat on the Cauvery River. Near by is Sri Kasi Viswanathaswami Temple on the southern bank of the river.

The Punukeeswarar Temple and Aiyaarappar Temple at Koranad, Mayiladuthurai are another important ancient Shiva temples in Mayiladuthurai.Anandathandavapuram Panchavatiswarar Shiva Temple is located 5 km (3.1 mi) from Mayiladuthurai.

The prominent Vaishnava temples in the town are Parimala Rangnathar Vishnu temple of lord Vishnu at Thiruvilandur on the northern banks of the Cauvery, a Divya desam and a Pancha rangam and Kolikutti Vanamutti Perumal temple.

Dharmapuram Adeenam Mutt with ancient temples of Dharmapureswarar, Gnanapureeswarar, Ashta Dasapuja Durgadevi and Vana Durgadevi is located in the eastern suburb.

All the Hindu holy rivers in India are believed to converge in Mayiladuthurai every year on New moon day in the Tamil month of Aippasi (November–December). A bathe at the bathing ghats on the banks of the river Cauvery on this day, according to Hindu belief, relieves a man of all his sins and misdeeds as the waters of the holy Ganges river mix with the Cavery on this day. Other important festivals celebrated at the temple are Navarathri, Adi Pooram, Avani Moolam, Karthigai Deepam and Vaikashi Brahmavotsavam An yearly dance festival called the Mayura Natyanjali is conducted within the precincts of the Mayuranathaswami Temple by the Saptasvarangal Trust during Maha Shivaratri on the pattern of the Chidambaram Natyanjali festival.

The town is considered the gateway to the Navagraha temple, the nine temples associated with planetary deities. The Periya Pallivasal mosque and TELC Church are other prominent worship places in the town. Tharangambadi, Pichavaram mangrove forest, Tirumullaivasal, Palaiyar and Karaikkal are the most prominent tourist attractions located around the town.